Hospitals are an essential component of the healthcare delivery system. They are staffed by professional medical staff and provide a wide variety of services. These include basic health care needs, as well as treatment and daily living support for patients. In many cases, hospitals also serve as training grounds for medical professionals.
Most hospitals are either for-profit or non-profit, and they provide services to a specific population or geographic area. The mix of services offered varies according to the hospital’s mission and goals. Some hospitals provide long-term care, while others specialize in outpatient care.
While hospitals are the primary provider of medical treatment, they can also play a role in care coordination and referral networks. As a result, they are key to the development of health systems. However, hospitals are expensive to operate. Their operating costs are mostly covered by governmental and private sources.
The United States has more than 6,500 hospitals, including military hospitals. There are almost 800 hospitals that are investor-owned. Other hospitals are nonprofit, but rely on governmental contributions for construction and other expenses.
Some hospitals specialize in one medical field, such as orthopedics or obstetrics and gynecology. Others are specialized in a particular disease, such as cancer. Modern technology has enabled the emergence of new medical equipment and diagnostics. A wide variety of treatments have been developed, which allows physicians to offer patients a high quality of care.
Hospitals usually have departments of medicine and surgery, but they can also have specialty areas, such as the rehabilitation center, pulmonology, or cardiology. Depending on the type of hospital, patients may have access to various services, such as outpatient services, home care, or day-care.
A variety of health professionals, such as nurses, therapists, and auxiliary healthcare staff, are employed in a hospital. Hospitals are often staffed by volunteers as well. During the Middle Ages, hospitals were staffed by religious orders, such as the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St. John. After the Reformation, the church ceased to be a major supporter of hospitals.
Patients in hospitals may be treated by a doctor, a consultant, or a nurse. The doctor’s role depends on his or her experience and expertise. Many doctors work with other health care providers, such as interns and resident doctors.
X-rays, radiographs, and other imaging tests are common in hospitals. Using small amounts of radiation, they form images of the internal structures of the body, such as bones and organs. Another test is the urine, which is typically tested for bacteria and sugar. Depending on the reason for the hospitalization, other samples may be tested, as well.
Hospitals are often called on to serve as research facilities. This allows hospitals to be an important part of the clinical research process. Research conducted in a hospital can lead to the discovery of new treatments and techniques.
Some hospitals have special programs for children and teens. For example, a child life specialist can organize a fun time for kids in the hospital, such as a play or movie night. Children in hospitals are also taught about their illness and how they can take care of themselves after their stay.